Numerical investigation of high-speed droplet impact using a multiscale two-fluid approach
Georgia Nykteri  1, *@  , Phoevos Koukouvinis  1@  , Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez Avila  2@  , Claus-Dieter Ohl  2@  , Manolis Gavaises  1@  
1 : City, University of London
Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB -  United Kingdom
2 : Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg
Universitätsplatz 2, 39016 Magdeburg -  Germany
* : Corresponding author

A single droplet impact onto solid surfaces remains a fundamental and challenging topic in both experimental and numerical studies with significant importance in a plethora of industrial applications, ranging from printing technologies to fuel injection in internal combustion engines. Under high-speed impact conditions, additional complexities arise as a result of the prompt droplet splashing and the subsequent violent fragmentation; thus, different flow regimes and a vast spectrum of sizes for the produced secondary flow structures coexist in the flow field. The present work introduces a numerical methodology to capture the multiscale processes involved with respect to local topological characteristics. The proposed methodology concerns a compressible Σ-Υ two-fluid model with dynamic interface sharpening based on an advanced flow topology detection algorithm. The model has been developed in OpenFOAM® and provides the flexibility of dealing with the multiscale character of droplet splashing, by switching between a sharp and a diffuse interface within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework in segregated and dispersed flow regions, respectively. An additional transport equation for the interface surface area density (Σ) introduces important information for the sub-grid scale phenomena, which is exploited in the dispersed flow regions to provide an insight into the extended cloud of secondary droplets after impact on the target. A high-speed water droplet impact case has been examined and evaluated against new experimental data; these refer to a millimetre size droplet impacting a solid dry smooth surface at velocity as high as 150m/s, which corresponds to a Weber number of ~7.6×10^5. At the investigated impact conditions compressibility effects dominate the early stages of droplet splashing. A strong shock wave forms and propagates inside the droplet, where transonic Mach numbers occur; local Mach numbers up to 2.5 are observed for the expelled surrounding gas outside the droplet. The proposed numerical approach is found to capture relatively accurately the phenomena and provide significant information regarding the produced flow structure dimensions, which is not available from the experiment.

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